According to Wikipedia, socialism
is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and workers’ self-management, as well as the political theories and movements associated with them. Social ownership can be public, collective[,] or cooperative ownership, or citizen ownership of equity.
is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
The only substantive difference between socialism and communism, in theory, is that communism somehow manages to do away with the state. This, of course, never happens, except in real communes, most of which were and are tiny, short-lived arrangements. (In what follows, I therefore put communism in “sneer quotes”.)
The common thread of socialism and “communism” is collective ownership of “equity”, that is, the means of production. But that kind of ownership eliminates an important incentive to invest in the development and acquisition of capital improvements that yield more and better output and therefore raise the general standard of living. The incentive, of course, is the opportunity to reap a substantial reward for taking a substantial risk. Absent that incentive, as has been amply demonstrated by the tragic history of socialist and “communist” regimes, the general standard of living is low and economic growth is practically (if not actually) stagnant.*
So here’s the first paradox: Systems that, by magical thinking, are supposed to make people better off do just the opposite: They make people worse off than they would otherwise be.
All of this because of class envy. Misplaced class envy, at that. “Capitalism” (a smear word) is really the voluntary and relatively unfettered exchange of products and services, including labor. Its ascendancy in the West is just a happy accident of the movement toward the kind of liberalism exemplified in the Declaration of Independence and Constitution. People were from traditional economic roles and allowed to put their talents to more productive uses, which included investing their time and money in capital that yielded more and better products and services.
Most “capitalists” in America were and still are workers who made risky investments to start and build businesses. Businesses that employs other workers and which offer things of value that consumers can take or leave, as they wish (unlike the typical socialist or “communist” system).
So here’s the second paradox: Socialism and “communism” actually suppress the very workers whom they are meant to benefit, in theory and rhetoric.
The third paradox is that socialist and “communist” regimes like to portray themselves as “democratic”, even though they are quite the opposite: ruled by party bosses who bestow favors on their protegees. Free markets are in fact truly democratic, in that their outcomes are determined directly by the participants in those markets.
* If you believe that socialist and “communist” regimes can efficiently direct capital formation and make an economy more productive, see “Socialist Calculation and the Turing Test“, “Monopoly: Private Is Better Than Public“, and “The Rahn Curve in Action“, which quantifies the stultifying effects of government spending and regulation.
As for China, imagine what an economic powerhouse it would be if, long ago, its emperors (including its “communist” ones, like Mao) had allowed its intelligent populace to become capitalists. China’s recent emergence as an economic dynamo is built on the sand of state ownership and direction. China, in fact, ranks low in per-capita GDP among industrialized nations. Its progress is a testament to forced industrialization, and was bound to better than what had come before. But it is worse than what could have been had China not suffered under autocratic rule for millennia.